The Ngorongoro Conservation Area has vast stretches of highland meadows, grassland, savanna forests, and woods. It includes the magnificent Ngorongoro Crater, the world’s largest caldera, and was established in 1959 as a distinct land use region, with natural life coexisting with semi-itinerant Maasai pastoralists practicing traditional animal brushing. Because of the existence of globally threatened species, the abundance of natural life in the area, and the yearly migration of wildebeest, zebra, gazelles, and other animals into the northern fields, the property has global significance for biodiversity preservation.
Archeological research has also uncovered a large list of evidence of human evolution and human-climate factors, including early monkey impressions dating back 3.6 million years.
The Ngorongoro Crater, the world’s largest dormant, perfect, and unfilled volcano caldera, is the centerpiece of the Ngorongoro Conservation Authority. The 610-meter-deep crater was formed when a gigantic spring of pouring lava erupted and imploded on itself a few million years ago, and its floor encompasses 260 square kilometers (100 square miles). The height of the first lava well has been estimated to be between 4,500 and 5,800 meters (14,800 and 19,000 ft). The depth of the hole is 1,800 meters (5,900 feet) below sea level. Seven Natural Wonders of Africa voted the hole as one of the Seven Natural Wonders of Africa in Arusha, Tanzania, in February 2013.